Gilsonite is a Unique Natural Resin
GILSONITE has been used successfully for many years in sealant and adhesive products. These applications were restricted to products that could utilize the inherent variability of GILSONITE. Now with new production technology and quality control, this unique natural resin can be considered as a substitute for synthetic resins at a fraction of the raw material cost. Example formulations are presented which use GILSONITE to provide cost effective products. Included in the examples presented are GILSONITE/heat reactive systems and water based products. These suggested formulas are given to show trends and are not intended to represent final products. Cost and performance data are also presented. Information for the use of GILSONITE in the formulations as a substitute for synthetic resins is presented. The effective use of this unique natural resin in high performance applications is based on the consistent high quality of GILSONITE.
GILSONITE is a natural resin which is one of the asphaltites, a mineral class of natural asphaltlike substances. These materials are characterized by high softening points (above 110°C). Other members of this class include glance pitch and grahamite (1). The origin of GILSONITE is still in question; however, there is a strong relationship between the alkyl porphyrins found in GILSONITE and those present in many petroleum compounds found in the Green River Formation (Eocene, Uinta Basin, Utah). These studies suggest that the porphyrins present in GILSONITE were formed as a result of mild thermal reductive degradation of naturally occurring chlorophylls (2,3,4).
The only commercial sources are found in northeastern Utah. GILSONITE in these deposits occurs in vertical veins up to 1500 feet in depth and 15 to 20 miles in length. These veins range in thickness from a few inches to approximately 20 ft. The GILSONITE ore is 98 to 99.9% pure, with only a small amount of inherent ash. Selectively mined ore is brought to the surface and processed to remove ash, reduce the moisture level, and produce the required particle size. Much effort has been devoted to the production of a consistently pure product with reproducible properties. This was made possible in part by design and construction of a processing plant and large scale segregated storage which is unique to the industry .
The data presented is somewhat contrary to existing information; however, these data are based on current state of the art analytical instrumentation and methods. The physical and chemical characteristics of GILSONITE are important to anyone wishing to formulate products that utilize its resinous properties. Recently these characteristics have been examined to obtain a better understanding of the chemical nature of GILSONITE. Several grades of GILSONITE are produced but the general chemical properties do not vary significantly between grades.General properties of GILSONITE resins are given in Table I, where the characteristics of typical resins are listed.
|Typical Properties of GILSONITE Resins|
|Softening Point Specific Gravity Penetration Acid Value, mg KOH/g Solubility Parameters||290°-400°F 1.04 0 2.38.0 – 9.4 7.8 – 8.2 0|
|Weak Hydrogen Bonding, (cal/cm³)½ Medium Hydrogen Bonding,(cal/cm³)½|
|Carbon, wt% Hydrogen, wt% Nitrogen, wt% Sulfur, wt% Oxygen, wt%||83.95 10.03 3.26 0.27 1.371.423|
|H/C Atomic Ratio|
|Carbon-13 NM3 Analysis|
|Aliphatic Carbon Aromatic Carbon||68.3 31.7|
|Number Average Molecular Weight by VPO|
|VPO in Toluene VPO in Pyridine||3172 2976|
|Average Number of Atoms Per Molecule|
|Total Carbon Aromatic Carbon Aliphatic Carbon Hydrogen Nitrogen Oxygen Sulfur||208 66 142 296 7 3 0.3||221 70 151 316 7 3 0.3|
|Melt Viscosity at Several Temperatures|
|325 350 375 400 425 450||1860 660 300 170 100 18||40000 5500 2000 500 200 80|
|Viscosity of GILSONITE in Toluene at 25° C|
|Time Days||GILSONITE Grade|
|Initial 1 7 14 21 28||19 22 25 26 28 29||45 59 80 92 105 118|
Data in Tables VI and VII illustrate the usefulness of 300 grade GILSONITE in products. For any grade of GILSONITE it has been found that when used in combination with other resins there is a synergistic effect, which lowers the melt and solution viscosity more than predicted.
Recently there is increased emphasis on cost reduction in adhesive and sealant products. This has led to reexamination of materials where cost savings can be realized without loss in quality of the product. The availability of new and more uniform grades of GILSONITE, for example 300 grade, now makes GILSONITE a viable substitute for more expensive resins.
In adhesive and sealant applications GILSONITE can be used as a tackifying resin, film former, or other modifier where color is not an overriding factor. GILSONITE is also used to modify the performance of other polymers for example: polyethylene; polyamides; polyvinylacetate; poly (ethylene vinylacetate) copolymer; and a variety of rubbers.
Our current development work is focused on the use of GILSONITE in solvent based, water based, and heat reactive systems. Typical formulations are presented along with measured physical properties and relative costs. These examples are given in Tables VIII through XIII.Contact Adhesives Contact adhesives were prepared that contained GILSONITE as a substitute for a phenolic tackifying resin. The suggested starting formulas and the test results are given in Table VIII. The data suggest that when GILSONITE is substituted for the phenolic component there is an opportunity for improved performance. Increasing the concentration of GILSONITE may provide even greater cost performance benefits.
|Formulas and Properties of Contact Adhesives|
|Neoprene Bakelite CKM 1634 GILSONITE 300 Magnesium Oxide Zinc Oxide AgeRite Stabilizer Toluene Hexane Acetone n-Propanol Water Peel Strength, ASTM D903||100 45 0 8 5 2 115 115 115 0 1||100 22 23 8 5 2 326 0 0 29 1||100 0 45 8 5 2 318 0 0 36 1|
|Plywood, lb/inch Laminate, lb/inch||16.6 19.4||13.9 12.6||19.0 23.7|
|Plywood, psi||226 1||448 .93||318 .85|
|Relative RM Costs|
|Formulas and Properties of Construction Mastics|
|Kraton D1101 Pentalyn H Cumar LX509 GILSONITE 300 Soft Clay Toluene Hexane Shear Strength ASTM D1002||100 100 100 0 512 138 300||100 0 100 100 512 138 300||100 100 0 100 512 138 300||100 0 0 200 512 138 300|
|3/16″ Plywood, psi Plywood/Concrete, psi||452 350||16.6 19.4||13.9 12.6||19.0 23.7|
|Relative RM Costs||1||.93||.93||.86|
|Formulas and Properties of Hot Melt Additives|
|Elvax 210 Piccolyte A115 GILSONITE 300 Chevron 143 Wax Witco Multiwax Ethyl Antiox 330 Peel Strength, ASTM D903||33 30 0 20 20 0.5||33 15 15 20 20 0.5||33 0 30 20 20 0.5|
|A1 foil/foil, 90°, LB/in foil/glass 180°, LB/in foil/PP, 180°, LB/in||0.85 1.2 0.75||0.98 0.91 0.76||0.83 1.02 0.96|
|Paper Bond, Fiber Tears||yes 1||yes .83||yes .68|
|Relative RM Costs|
|Heat Reactive System With Fluxed GILSONITE|
|Part A Resin A GILSONITE 300 Nebony 100 Sunpar 150 Clay Part B|
|18.8 18.8 0 15.3 37.6||17.2 17.2 0 14.0 34.4||17.2 17.2 0 15.6 34.4||18.7 0 18.2 9.0 35.3|
|Resin B GILSONITE 350 Rose Asphaltenes||9.5 0 0||8.6 8.6 0||7.8 0 7.8||18.7 0 0|
|Lap Shear, ASTM C961|
|Heat Reactive System With Dispersed GILSONITE|
|Resin A Resin B GILSONITE 350 Rose Asphaltenes Asphalt, Air Blown Tensile Strength, psi||12 12 40 0 0 199||12 12 0 40 0 101||12 12 0 0 40 103|
|GILSONITE Water Based Ceramic Tile Adhesive|
|GILSONITE DBP Triton X-100 Emulsion (SBR) Ethylene Glycol Urea Water Thickener Clay||20 5 2 20 4 9 15 .1 32|
Other examples of water based formulas have been shown to produce materials similar to current commercial products.
These examples in this paper indicate that GILSONITE can be used not only in the traditional way as a filler or extender but has good potential as a resin for many types of adhesive and sealant products.
1. K.R. Neel, Encyclopedia Chem. Tech., 11, 3rd. Ed., pp 802-806, (1980).
2. J.M. Sugihara and L.R. McGee, J. Org. Chem. 22, 795 (1957).
3. J.M.E. Quirke, J.M. Maxwell, and G. Eglinton, Tetrahedron 36, 3453 (1980).
4. S.K. Hajibrahim, J.M.E. Quirke, and G. Eglinton, Chem. Geology, 32, 173 (1981).