What is Base oil?
Base oils SN 150 , SN 350 , SN 500 and SN 650 are produced in a series of steps which are designed to enhance certain desirable properties. For paraffinic oils, these include viscosity index, oxidation resistance, thermal stability and low temperature fluidity. Normally base our categorized based on viscosity index including SN 150 , SN 350 , SN 500 and SN 650 Starting from petroleum crude oil, the typical process for making lubricant base oil is as follows:
• Separation of lighter boiling materials, such as gasoline, diesel, etc.
• Distillation to give desired base oil viscosity grades
• Selective removal of impurities, such as aromatics and polar compounds
• Dewaxing to improve low temperature fluidity
• Finishing and improving oxidation resistance and heat stability generally both Solvent Refined and Hydrocracked base oils are manufactured this way, but differ in the processes used.
Density @ 15.6℃, kg/L
Kinematic Viscosity @ 40℃, cSt
Kinematic Viscosity @ 100℃, cSt
Flash Point, COC, ℃
Pour Point, ℃
Conradson Carbon Residue, wt%
Copper Strip Corrosion, 100℃, 3 hrs
Total Acid Number, mgKOH/g
Drum: All grade is possible to fill SN 150 , SN 350 , SN 500 and SN 650
Before reviewing how base oil is manufactured, we should explain the American Petroleum Institute’s (API) Base Oil Classification system. For engine oils, the API system classifies base oils into five major groups, as shown below.
While these groups were originally intended to be used for engine oils, their usage has expanded beyond this area.
API Base Oil SN 150 , SN 350 , SN 500 and SN 650 Characteristics Manufacturing Group Sulphur Saturates Viscosity Index Method Wt, % Wt, % VI I > 0.03 < 90 80-119 Solvent Refined II < 0.03 > 90 80-119 Hydroprocessed III < 0.03 > 90 120 + Severely Hydroprocessed IV Polyalpha Olefins (PAOs) Oligomerization V Other Base Oils Various Group I, or conventional base oils manufactured by Solvent Refining, make up most of the base oil produced in the world today.
Containing more than 0.03 wt % Sulphur and less than 90 wt % Saturates, they are less pure than Hydroprocessed or Synthetic base oils. Group II and III base oils are manufactured by what the API calls Hydro – processing or Severe Hydro processing. These are just other names for Petro-Canada’s Patented HT Purity Process.
With Sulphur content of less than 0.03 wt % and Saturates content of more than 90 wt %, they are more pure than Group I base oils.
Characteristic Significant Difference COLOUR HT Severely Hydrocracked base oils are clear and colorless VISCOSITY INDEX HT Severely Hydrocracked base oils have high VIs so they ‘thin-out’ less at high temperatures.
OXIDATION RESISTANCE HT Severely Hydrocracked base oils respond very well to anti-oxidants and so have excellent resistance to oxidation and long lubricant life in finished products. THERMAL STABILITY HT Severely Hydrocracked base oils have very good resistance to heat. CARBON RESIDUE HT Severely Hydrocracked base oils produce low residues. DEMULSIBILITY HT Severely Hydrocracked oils separate readily from water.
LOW TOXICITY HT Severely Hydrocracked base oils have low toxicity, due to a virtual absence of impurities. Petro-Canada White Oils are pure enough to be used in cosmetics and pharmaceuticals. BIODEGRADABILITY HT Severely Hydrocracked base oils have biodegradability characteristics.