The oil-field chemicals used in the various operations for completion
of any oil well can be grouped into the following categories.
— Drilling fluid/Mud chemicals and Mud additives
— Cement and cement additives
— Production chemicals
— Water Injection Chemicals
— Well Stimulation Chemicals
— Process Chemicals.
Drilling fluids or liquids perform a variety of functions that influence the drilling rate, the cost, efficiency and safety of drilling operations. There are many types of drilling fluid systems available like water base muds, oil base muds, stable foam muds, air or gas base muds from which the right system may be chosen. Main drilling mud additives include viscosifying agents, fluid loss control agents, drilling fluid dispersants and corrosion inhibitors. Cement and cement additives are considered to be critical inputs in the completion of any oil and gas well. The increase in demand for cement suitable for oil and gas wells led to the establishment
of API codes by the American Petroleum Institute and nine classes of cements for the oil industry have been classified. Two of the nine classes of cements, the classes G and H, are called basic oil well cements. Main cement additives retarders, turbulence inducers and fluid loss controlling agents. Production chemicals are used to keep the oil mobile after shut down or under cold conditions, remove emulsified water and prevent corrosion of the pipeline. A stimulation fluid is utilised to improve the flow of hydrocarbons. Water injection chemicals are used for pressure maintenance of the reservoir to enable higher oil recovery.
Softening Point (ASTM E28-92)
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