The invention relates to the ceramic industry, namely to ceramic masses for the production of ceramic granite for industrial use. Porcelain tile for industrial use is characterized by a sintered shard and water absorption of less than 0.1%.
Known mass for ceramic products (RF patent No. 2162830 MKI SB04/24), including, wt.%: Kaolin 40-42; white clay 9.5-10; quartz sand 0.1-13; pegmatitis 24-25; alumina 0.1-2; battle of porcelain 6-7; quartz concentrate 3-17.5.
The disadvantage of this ceramic mass is the complexity of its preparation due to multicomponent.
The closest analogue, chosen as a prototype, is SACMI ceramic mass, described in the open Manual: “From technology through machinery to kilns for SACMI tile. Technological notes on the manufacture of ceramic tiles ”, 1986, p. VI-12. The composition of the specified ceramic mass includes the following components: clay – 20-40 wt.%, Feldspar 20-40 wt.%, Quartz sand – 0-10 wt.% And enriched kaolin – 10-15 wt.%.
The disadvantages of this composition are: the high cost of the composition due to the high content of expensive enriched kaolin, as well as the high energy intensity of the process of obtaining the finished product due to the high firing temperature (1215-1220 ° C).
The technical result, the achievement of which the present invention is directed, is to reduce the cost of ceramic mass and finished products from it, as well as reducing the energy intensity of the process of obtaining finished products, through the use of more affordable and cheaper constituent components, which simultaneously reduce the firing temperature.
The specified technical result is achieved by the fact that the proposed ceramic mass for the manufacture of ceramic granite contains in its composition, wt.%: Raw kaolin of the Poletaevsky deposit 23-26; refractory clay Ukrainian 18-20; refractory clay Nizhneuvelskaya 8-10; feldspar 41-44; sand 3-5.
The use of unenriched raw kaolin of the Poletaevsky deposit with a high content of alkaline oxides, as well as feldspar – feldspar, reduces the firing temperature.
It is known that raw kaolin of the Poletaevsky deposit has a high content of alkaline oxides (K 2 O, Na 2 O), which helps to reduce the viscosity of the liquid phase and increases its amount, which in turn accelerates diffusion processes and increases the sintering speed of the mass at lower temperatures .
A decrease in the content of raw kaolin of the Poletaevsky deposit of less than 23 wt.% Requires an increase in the content of quartz sand and the introduction of enriched kaolin, which will lead to an increase in the firing temperature of the mixture. If the content of the indicated raw kaolin is increased by more than 26 wt.%, The content of free quartz and glass phase in the calcined mass will increase, which will reduce the quality of the finished product due to the increased likelihood of deformation and cracking of the tile during firing.
With the cost of less expensive refractory clay Nizhneuvelskaya less than 8%, the share of influence on the cost of the mass is minimal, in addition, there is an unstable operation of weighing equipment (studies were conducted at the enterprise “Ural Granite”, Snezhinsk, Chelyabinsk region). When its content is more than 10%, deterioration of the grinding parameters is observed, expressed in an increase in the moisture and viscosity of the slip, an increase in water absorption of the material up to 0.8%, as well as staining of the shard in a dirty gray color.
Tests of ceramic compositions
of different composition according to GOST 6787-2001 for water absorption, frost resistance, mechanical strength, abrasion, as well as the effect of the composition of the mass on the color of the crock are presented in the table.
Analysis of the results in the table indicates that the composition of the ceramic mass declared in the present invention has a lower firing temperature compared to the prototype. At the same time, the basic technical and aesthetic characteristics of the material are preserved. Lowering the firing temperature reduces energy costs.
Considering that the cost of raw kaolin of the Poletaevsky deposit is 5-6 times less than the cost of enriched kaolin, and the cost of Nizhneuvelskaya clay is 2-3 times less than Ukrainian clay, the claimed ceramic mixture has a lower cost.
Thus, the reduction in the cost of finished products from the declared ceramic mass is due to the use of cheaper raw kaolin of the Poletaevsky deposit and a decrease in the consumption of fuel and energy resources in connection with a decrease in the firing temperature of the products. In addition, the proposed composition of the raw materials does not require the inclusion of additional additives, which eliminates the multicomponent composition of the ceramic mass and simplifies the technology for producing finished products, which also allows to reduce the cost of obtaining finished products.
An example of a specific implementation.
To prepare the ceramic mass, raw kaolin of the Poletaevskoye deposit was used according to TU No. 5729-001-21560370 with the following chemical composition: SiO 2 – 65%; Al 2 O 3 – 23%; TiO 2 0.47%; Fe-O 3 – 0.8%; FeO – 0.18%; CaO – 0.3%; MgO – 0.3%; K 2 O – l, 65%; Na 2 O – 0.8%; p.p.p. – 7.5%.
Refractory clay of the Nizhneuvelskoye deposit according to TU No. 14-8-336-80 with the following chemical composition: SiO 2 – 65.2%; Al 2 O 3 – 20.1%; TiO 2 – 1.1%; Fe 2 O 3 – 2.2%; CaO – 1.4%; MgO – 0.6%; K 2 O – 1.7%; Na 2 O – 2.6%; p.p.p. – 6.0%.
Refractory clay Ukrainian Vesko-Ceramik according to TU U 322-7-00190503-14598
Vishnevogorsk feldspar according to TU 5726-036-00193861-96
Quartz sand of the Galyaminsky deposit (Chelyabinsk region) http://tfgi74.ru/lit_catalog/3452/.
The preparation of the mass is carried out by joint fine wet grinding of raw materials in a ball mill to a residue of 0.95-1.0% on sieve No. 0063. Slurry humidity is 35-36%, fluidity is achieved by adding a standard diluent of sodium tripolyphosphate 0.25%. The finished slip under a pressure of 30 atm is fed to the atomizer for drying, where water evaporates and granules of the press powder form with a moisture content of 5-6%. Aged during the day, the powder is fed to a hydraulic press, providing a pressing pressure of 350-450 kg / cm 2 . The pressed tile enters the carousel-type dryer, where it is dried to a residual moisture content of 0.5%. Then the tile goes to firing. When moving along the glaze conveyor, a protective coating is applied to the front and back surfaces of the tiles. The tiles are fired in a gas flame tunnel kiln at a maximum temperature of 1200 ° C. After firing, tile samples were tested according to GOST 6787-2001 for water absorption, frost resistance, mechanical strength, and abrasion. The results are presented in the table.
Analysis of the results in the table indicates that the composition of the ceramic mass declared in the present invention has a lower firing temperature compared to the prototype. At the same time, the main technical characteristics of the material are preserved. Lowering the firing temperature reduces energy costs.
Given that the cost of raw kaolin of the Poletaevsky deposit is 2-3 times less than the cost of enriched kaolin, the claimed ceramic mixture has a lower cost.