Building of roads ,blown agent,rubberise of material by Gilsonite

Claims. (Cl. 260-285) This invention relates to improvements in comminuted particles of thermoplastic compositions containing rubber for incorporation in the bituminousbinders usedin .building roads.

melting bitumens),

In conventional road building practice, .hot bituminous i binder (asphalt or road tar) is mixedwith'the aggregate at a pug mill and the mix is then transportedto the paving either alone or with up to 0.5%

site, or the dry aggregate is first laid on the road and the hot binder is then sprayed on the aggregate. In theseof 250 F. to

operations the binder is at a temperature 400 F. (generally 250 F. to 350 F.). The asphalt binders used are graded according to penetration values l at 77 F. as measured by the standard method' of test for penetration of bituminous materials (A. S. T. M;'D5 52), the penetration values being measured as thetenths of a millimeter that a taperedstandard needle (0.14.'to 0.16 mm. tip diameter) will penetrate the asphalt in five seconds with a 100 gram' load. The overall penetration range for' the various asphalt binders used is from 40 to 300. The

ranges 40-70 are generally for'asphalt for hot climates,

70-110 generally for temperature climates,gand 110-300 generally'for coldf 'climates. The road tar binders used f are graded according to the standard method of float test for bituminous materials (A. S. T. M. Dl394 9 ),wh ejrein.

a cup having aplug made of the tar u'ndertest is floated in a bath of water at 50 C. Thewater melts the plug, filling the cup andthe time in: seconds is-recorded for the cup to sink. The road tars used as-binders aredesignated from RT 6 to RT12, and have an overall float test A range from 20 seconds to 220 seconds 'The floatt'est ranges of the various roadtars used are about 20 27 seconds for RT 6, 27-42 seconds for RT17, 4244, seconds 1 for RT8, 54-75 secondsfor RT 9, 75;100 seconds "for RT 10, 100-150 seconds for RT 11, and 150 -220 seconds for RT 12.

Comminuted rubber particles, such as ground or pelletized rubber, or powdered rubber prepared directly from rubber latex by spray drying,'or rubber crumbs prepared by flocculation of rubber latex, have been incorporated in the hot bituminous binder (asphalt or road tar) used with the mineral aggregate in forming paving compositions. However, the rubber particles are uniformly dissolved or dispersed in the asphalt or road tar only with great difiil y- I By the present invention, there is provided an improved form of rubber-containing particles which are free-flowing and non-sintering under storage conditions and which are readily and uniformly dissolved or dispersed in the hot bituminous binder.

According to the present invention, the rubber is blended with a high melting bituminous material to form a composition which is easily miscible with the hot binder and which carries the rubber into solution the binder. minutedtinto discrete non-adhering particles. The composition also comprises a blowing agent which prevents the comminuted particles or pellets of the composition of the present invention from sinking into the hot or dispersion in The composition can also be readily com- 3 bituminous 'stearic acid or benzoic acid, as

binder and cakingwhen the pellets are mixed'with the binder. The blowing agent is decomposed at the tembituminous binder decomposes the blowing agent and the blow'n pellets dispersein the bindermuch more rapidly and eflectively since'the attrition of the aggregate is more effective against the blown pellet.

'The composition of the comminuted particles of the present invention comprises 20 to parts of natural or synthetic rubber, 30 to 60 parts of high melting bituminous material having a softening point in the range from 200 F. to 350 F. (sometimes called melting point with high as measured bythe ring and ball test (i..e. the A. S. T. M. test for softening point by the ring and ball apparatus E 28-51T), and 0.01 to 0.5 part of blowing agent, preferably an alkali-metal bicarbonate, of acid material, such as is common in blowing rubber compounds for sponge manufacture. There may 1 also be present, if desired, but not necessary, up to 50 parts of 'powdered inert filler material, such as talc, clay, whiting, mica, silica or alumina, preferably of a fineness-to pass a 325 mesh screen. Such high melting bitum'ens which are conventionally graded and measured by passing through a pelletizer.

The high melting bituminous material which has a softening point in the range of 200 'F. to 350 F. as measured by the ring and ball test (A. S. T. M. E 2851T) may be anatural occurring'high melting asphalt having asoftening point in the range of 200 F. to 350 F,, or

an asphaltite, such as gilsonite, which has a softening point in such range of 200 F. to 350 F., or it may be a tar or pitch obtained in the pyrogenous treatment of bituminous material having a softening point in such range of 200 F. to 350 F., e. g. coal tar or coal tar pitch (i. e. coke-oven coal tar or pitch, or gas-works coal tar or pitch), water-gas tar or pitch, or oil-gas tar or pitch. It is preferred, but not essential, that where the road binder is asphalt, the high melting bituminous material in the pellets'should be a high melting asphalt or gilsonite or mixtures thereof, and where the road binder is a road tar, the high melting bituminous material in the pellets should be a high melting tar or pitch or mixtures thereof.

The rubber may be a natural or synthetic rubber or a reclaim thereof. When using a reclaim, which,may contain up to 50% non-rubber material, the rubber content of the composition of the present invention is based on the rubber component of the reclaim. The synthetic rubber may be the product of the emulsion polymerization in the presence of a free radical catalyst of the peroxide or azo type of one or more butadienes-1,3, for

example, butadiene 1,3, 2 methyl butadiene 1,3 (isoprene), 2-chloro-butadiene-1,3 (chloroprene), 2,3-

dimethyl-butadiene-1,3, piperylene, or a mixture of one:

or more such butadienes-1,3 'with one or more other polymerizable compounds which. are capable of forming Patentedsept. 2 4, 1957 y of .the molecule. Examples of. compounds 'whichcontaina a CH2=C group and are copolymerizable with butadienes-1,3, hydrocarbons are aryl olefines, such :as styrene and vinyl naphthalene; the alpha -methylenecarboxylic acids and their esters, nitriles and amides, suchlas acrylic acid, methyl acrylate; methyl methacrylate, acrylonitrile,

methacrylonitrile, methacrylamide; methyl vinyl ether; methyl vinyl ketone; vinylidene-chloride. Common commercial syntheticrubbers ofthistype are GR'-S. (copoly.- mer of a major proportion of-butadiene. ancLa minor.

proportion of-styrene), Paracril (copol-ymer of \a'wmajor 1 proportion ,ofbutadiene and a minortproportion ofacrylonitrile) and neoprene (polymerized chloro-Z-butadiene- 1,3). The synthetic rubber may also be the: product oi the polymerization ofamixture ofamajor proportion of isoolefin and. a-rninor proportion of conjugated diene; at low temperature in thepresence ofia Eriedel-Crafts :poly

merization catalyst ofathe type z-ofaluminum chloride or boron .trifluoride. An example of racomrnercial synthetic rubber. of this-,typeristButyl :rubber which isk-a copolymer, of about 96' to 99.5 parts of isobutylene and. correspond-- ingly 4.parts to 0.5 part-of isoprene.

The presently preferred comminuted particles-.are-zpeh letized in a so-called dicing machine whichcuts a inch :thiclcsheet ofithe composition in the shapeofcubes: about $5 inch onieach side. Other cube-shaped com-. minuted particles maybeused from Jfl inch to /2inch on: each-side.. The pellets may have other shapes,- such as columnarrsegmentsn where the. composition is: extruded through. a screen orv perforate. dieand the exudate cut a off/for the desired 1lengthof the pellets witha wire or knife afiixedt to the. extruder head. Preferably, such. other shaped pelletswill have a volume equal-to'the volume ofacube. from /figdIlCh to /2 inch, andwillbe dusted'onthe outside surface withthe powdered/filler.

Generallymhe amount of asphalt or: road tanbinder added to the aggregate in a pug, mill is 3% to-l5%- by, weight t of the, aggregate. The. amount 1 of: pellets of. the present invention which is. used' may be that amount which givesfrom l to.15 parts of rubbertper; 100 parts ofasphaltonrubbertar binder, vwhethenmixed in the-.pug; a

mill withsthefhot aggregate before; the binder is added, orimixedwith the hot binder, before introduction-;=into, the pug mill or spraying on; the rolled dry aggregate.

The following examples illustrate theiinventiont, All partsandpercentages referred. to herein are: by weigh Example" I 19186 parts ofa high melting asphalt having. asoftening point of 300? F. by the ring and ball test weremixed in, followed by 0.07 part ofsodium bicarbonate and 0.07 part 0f.'stearic.acid. The batch was dumped ontoa cold mill; sheeted out to about inch thickness, cooled, ,and-

passed through a. pelletizer which was aCumberland.

Sfair stepjDicer which comminutedthe. sheet into free flowing cub'e-shapedpell'ets about ig, inch on each side.

Intola one-ton pug millwas loaded 1880* pounds of aggregate which'was heatedto 300F.350"F. Fifteen pounds of the pellets of the present" invention; prepared as above; wereadded all-at'once-with-churning; and less thama-minute later 105 poundsof 8'5 to-l00 penetration" asphalt binder (softening-point 116 1 whichwasheated to 300, 1 1-325" F. were added, and themmixi churned for less than a minute: Themix WflSrtfflIlSfCl'I'Cd to trucks 1 for transport to the paving site whereit was dumped'androlled. The road laid down from this mix had about 4% voids, or minute air pockets. The percentage of voids was determined according to the A. S. T. M. test C30-37 which consists in calculating a theoretical specific gravity and determining-the variation from this quan tity which correspondsto voids. that 4% voids is about optimum. The blown cellsxthus did not carry over into the final paving mix, being collapsed by the aggregate. Examination of the roadbed showed an even distribution of the rubber which is characteristic of a well laid rubberized road;-

Example II One thousand fifty pounds (126 gallons) 'of -to penetration asphalt binder'was charged into a tank and heated to 300 F. One hundred and fifty pounds of the pellets prepared as in Example I were added and the mass agitated for about threehours. During 'th'is time,

the pellets were suspendedaand gradually dissolved inthe There was no agglomeration of the rubben eiasphalt. lets on the bottom of the tank as occurs when the blowing agent is not used. The rubber-asphalt blend was suitable for addition to hot aggregate in the pugzmill, or for spray-' ing on rolled dryaggregate in.theipenetrationimethod of road building.

Example: III

Pellets were prepared in the manner. of Examplel with .the addition of materials to the Banbury in the following order according to the recipe: 100' parts of'Paracril (copolymer of amajor proportion ofbutadieneand'a minor proportion of acrylonitrile), 20"parts of Dixie clay, 50 parts of. coke oven tar pitch having a softening point of about 275 F. by the ringand ball test, 0.07 part of sodium bicarbonate, and 007' part of stearic acid.

Pellets made from the-above composition readily dissolved in road tar binder in ahot mix made ina pug mill as in Example I by adding l880'pounds of aggregate heated to 350 F., then addinglS'pounds of unheated pellets to the hot aggregate, and followed by the-addition of'105 pounds ofan RT-lZ road tar heated to 250 F., to give an excellent paving.

Example I V- Onehundred fifty pounds ofpellets prepared as in ExamplelH were agitated for six hours in a tanlccontaining.

not used. The rubberatarblend was suitable for addition to hot aggregate in the pug mill, or for spraying on rolled dry aggregate in the penetration method-of roadbuilding.

In view of the many changesand .modifications -that maybe-made without departingfrom the principles underlying the invention, .referenceshould .bemade :to the ap-.

pendedclaims for an understanding of the scope of theprotection afforded the invention.

Having thus described my invention, what I-claim and 0 desire to protect by Letters Patent is:

l. Free-flowing comminuted particles of a thermoplastic-composition adapted to beblended with the bituminous binder forthe aggregate in paving constructioncomprising. 20 to t60 -parts of a rubber, 30.to 60parts of a bituminous material having a softening point in :the range from 200 'F. to 350 F. as measured by the ring-and ball test, and 0.01't0 0.5partof a solid blowing agent, which decomposesat temperatures between 250 F. and 400" F., the individualcomrninuted particles having a volumeequal to thevolumeof a cube from & inchto /z'inch-on each side.

2. Free-flowing. comminuted particles of athermo plastic composition adapted to be blended with .thebituminous binder for the'aggregate in paving construction com prising 20 to 60 parts ofi a rubber, 30-to .60. parts,o 11' Experience has shown 1 2,so7,59e

3. Free-flowing comminuted particles of a thermo-p plastic composition adapted to be blended with the bituminous binder for the aggregate in paving constructioncomprising 20 to 60 parts of a rubber selected from the group consisting of natural rubber, polybutadienes, synthetic rubber copolymers of mixtures of butadienes with up to 70% of the mixture of compounds which contain a CH2=C group and are copolymerizable with butadienes, and synthetic rubber copolymers of a major proportion of an isoolefin and a minor proportion of a conjugated diene, 30 to 60 parts of bituminous material having a softening point in the range from 200 F. to 350 F. as measured by the ring and ball test, selected from the group consisting of asphalt, gilsonite, tars and tar pitches, and 0.01 to 0.5 part of a solid blowing agent, which decomposes at temperatures between 250 -F. and 400 F., the individual comminuted particles having a volume equal to the volume of a cube from 4 inch to /2 inch on each side.

4. Free-flowing comminuted particles of a thermoplastic composition adapted to be blended with the bituminous binder for the aggregate in paving constructioncomprising 20 to 60 parts of a rubber selected from the group consisting of natural rubber, polybutadienes, synthetic rubber, copolymers of mixtures of butadienes with up to'70% I of the mixture of compounds which contain a CH2=C group and are copolymerizable with butadienes, and synthetic rubber copolymers of a major proportion'of an isoolefin and a minor proportion of a conjugated diene, 30 to 60 parts of bituminous material having a softening point in the range from 200 F. to 350 F. as measured by the ring and ball test, selected from the group consisting of asphalt, gilsonite, tars and tar pitches, and 0.01 to 0.5 part of sodium bicarbonate, the individual comminuted particles having a Volume equal to the volume of a cube from 4 inch to inch on each side.

5. Free-flowing comminuted particles of a thermoplastic composition adapted to be blended with the bituminous binder for the aggregate in paving constructioncomprising 20 to 60 parts of 'a synthetic rubber copolymer of a major proportion of isobutylene and a minor proportion of isoprene, 30 to 60 parts of bituminous material having a softening point in the range from 200 F. to 350 F. as measured by the ring and ball test, selected from the group consisting of asphalt, gilsonite, tar and pitch, and 0.01 to 0.5 part of a solid blowing agent which decomposes at temperatures between 250 F. and 400 F.

6. Free-blowing comminuted particles of a thermoplastic composition adapted to be blended with the bituminous binder for the aggregate in paving construction com- F. as measured by the ring and ball prising 20 to parts of a synthetic rubber copolymer of a major proportion of isobuty-lene and a minor proportion of isoprene, 30 to 60 parts of bituminous material having a softening point in the range from 2009F. to 350 F. as measured by the ring and ball test, selected from the group consisting of asphalt, gilsonite, tars and tar pitches, and 0.01 to 0.5 part of sodiumbicarbonate, the individual comminuted particles having .a volume equal to the volume of a cube from inch to inch on each side.

7. Free-flowing comminuted particles of a thermo: plastic composition adapted to be blended with the bituminous binder for the aggregate in paving constructioncomprising 20 to 60 parts of a synthetic rubber copolymer of a major proportion of isobutylene and a minor proportion of isoprene, 30 to 60 parts of a mixture of gilsonite and an asphalt having a softening point in the range from 200 F. and 350 F. as measured by the ring and ball test, and 0.01 to 0.5 part of a solid blowing agent which decomposes at temperatures between 250 F. and 400 F., the

urdividual-comminuted particles having a volume equal to the volume of a cube from %,2,lnCh to /2 inch on-each side.

8. Free-flowing comminuted particles of a thermoplastic composition adapted to be blended with the bituminous binder for the aggregate in paving constructioncomprising 20 to 60 parts of a synthetic rubber copolymer of a major proportion of isobutylene and a minor proportion of isoprene, 30 to 60 parts of a mixture of gilsonite and an asphalt having a'softening point in the range from 200 F. and 350 F. as measured by the ring and ball test, and 0.01 to 0.5 part of sodium bicarbonate, the

individualcomminuted particles having a volume equal to the volume ofa cube from & inch to /2 inch on each side. i 1 i 9. Free-flowing comminuted particles of a thermoplastic composition adapted to be. blended with the bituminous binder for the aggregate in paving construction comprising 20 to 60 parts of a synthetic rubber copolymer of a major proportion of butadiene and a minor proportion of acrylonitrile', 30 to 60 parts of a bituminous pitch having a softening point in the range from 200 F. and 350 F. as measured by the ring and ball test, and 0.01 to 0.5 part of a solid blowing agent which decomposes at temperatures between 250 F. and 400 F. the individual comminuted particles having a volume equal to plastic composition adapted to be blended with the bituminous binder for the aggregate in paving construction comprising 20 to 60 parts of a synthetic rubber copolymer of a major proportion of butadiene and a minor proportion of acrylonitrile, 30 to 60 parts of a bituminous pitch having a softening point in the range from 200 F. and 350 F. as measured by the ring and ball test, and 0.01 to 0.5 part of sodium bicarbonate, the individual comminuted particles having a volume equalto the volume of a cube from 1 inch to /2 inch on each side.

11. The method of building paving construction which comprises applying to the aggregate for the paving construction a bituminous binder selected from the group consisting of asphalt and road tar heated to 250 F. to 400 F. and blended with free-flowing comminuted particles of a thermoplastic composition comprising 20 to 60 parts of a rubber, 30 to 60 parts of a bituminous material having a softening point in the range from 200 F. to 350 F. as measured by the ring and ball test, and 0.01 to 0.5 part of a solid blowing agent which decomposes at temperatures between 250 F. and 400 F., said comminuted particles being in amount to give 1% to 15% of rubber based on the bituminous binder.

12. The method of building paving construction which comprises mixing at temperature from 250 F. to 400 F. aggregate for the paving construction, a bituminous binder selected from the group consisting of asphalt and road tar, and free-flowing comminuted particles of a thermoplastic composition comprising 20 to 60 parts of a rubber, 30 to 60 parts of a bituminous material having a softening point in the range from 200 F. to 350 F. as measured by the ring and ball test, and 0.01 to 0.5 part ofsodium bicarbonate, said comminuted particles being in amount to give 1% to 15% of rubber based on the bituminous binder.

13. The method of building paving construction which comprises mixing at temperature from 250 F. to 400 F. aggregatefor the paving construction, a bituminous binder selected from the group consisting of asphalt and road tar, and free-flowing comminuted particles of a thermoplastic composition comprising 20 to 60 parts of a rubber selected from the group consisting of natural rubber, polybutadienes, synthetic rubber copolymers of mixturesr of bhtadienes witlr up"-to 70% of" the mixture of cdmpoundswhichcontaini-at it group' and are copolyinerizable with 'b'uta'dienes; and synthetic' rubber copplyrners of a major proportion of an isoolfih" antral minor proportion of a" conjugated diene, 30to .60p'arts of bituminous materialhavingfa softening point'imtfie range from 200F1'to 350 as measured bythe'ring and,'ba1l"test', sel'ctedTtOm the group consisting of' asphalt, gil sonite, tars andvtar pitches, andi0.01

\ of'natural rubber, tpolybutadienes, synthetic rubber copolymersjofjmixturesj of butadi'enes with up to 70% of-' the mixture of compounds which contain a group andiare copolymerizablewith butadienes, and synthetictrubber copolymersof a major proportion of an isoolefin and aminor proportiontofta conjugated diene, 30fto 60Tparts of bituminous material having a softening point in the range from 200 F. to 350 F. as measured by thering and ball? test; selected ffom'the group consisting'of asphalt, gilsonite, tarand pitch, and'0.01 to 0.5 partof sodium"bicarbonate; said comminuted' particles being in' amount to"give"'1% to'15% of rubber based on the bituminous binder:

15'. Themethodof-buildingpavingconstruction which comprises applying to the aggregate for the paving constructiontai bituminousubinderselectedrfrom the. group consisting} of asphaltvandrroad; tart heated to 250F. to 4001 and blendedawith:freerflowingccomminuted particles of: a synthetic rubber copolymer of a major proportion of iisobutylene' and a minor proportion of isoprene, 30 to 60 parts of bituminous material having a softening point in 'thetrange from 200 F. to 350 F. as measured by the ririgjandball test, selected'frorn the group consistingof 'asphalt,gilsonite, tar and pitch, and"0.01 to 0.5' partof a'solid' blowing agent which decomposes attemperatures between 250' 'F: and 400"FJ, saidcomminuted particles being in-amount"togive 1% to15% of rubber band on the bituminous binder:

165- The method of-=bui1ding paving constructionwhich comprisesmixing at -temperaturetrom=250 F. to 400. F. aggregate for! the pavingzconstruction, abituminous binder selected zfromthetgroup, consisting; of asphalt and road tar andjfree fiowing comminuted particles of a thermoplastic compositioncomprisingt20 to 60 parts of asynthetic-rubber copolymer ofa major proportion of isobutylene and a minor proportion of isoprene, 30 to 60 parts of bituminous material having a softeningpoint in the ranget from200 F. to 350 F. as measuredby the ring and ball test, selected from the group consisting of asphalt, gilsonite, tar and pitch';a1'1d"0.01 to 05 part of sodium bicarbonate,.said comminuted particlesbeing" in 17 The method ot buildingp avin'g construction which comprises-mixing in a pug:mill attemperature from 250 F. to 400 F, aggregate for the paving construction; a

bituminous -binder selected from the group 5 consisting of asphalt and road tar ,--and free-flowing comminuted particles ot? a therrnoplas'tic composition comprising- 20 to 60 parts -of a synth'et'ic rubber copolymor of a major. proportion of isobutylene anda minor proportion ofiioprcne,

305to. 60 parts ofa rnixture ofgilsoniteand an asphalt having=arsofteningipoint in: the rangeaf'rom 200Ft to 350 F: as measurediby't the'ring and balh test-, and 0.01to 0.05 part- 'ofa solid blowing agent -whichdecomposesat f temperatures:between1250t" F. and 400R, said com Hlil'llltCduPflEiiClSSbil'lgiiiltiamnunwtu give 1% to of-saidsynthetio rubber. basedion the asphalt binder.

18; Themethod'roffbuilding' pavingconstruction which" comprises applyingito the aggregateifor the paving constructiona r bituminous. "binder: selected fromthe r group! consistingiofiiasphalttand road" tar. heated" to 250 F. to 400-! F'. and: blended; with r fFC6flOWl11 g comminuted particlesuof Aa thermoplastic: compositiont comprisingi- 20" 'to-60 partsaof a synthetic rubber: copolyrner 'of a major proportion"of' isobutylene andiat:minorproportion of iso.--

prene; to wparts of a mixture of gilsonite and am asphalt havingta softening :point in the-range from 200 Fvto- 350 F. as measuredwbyh the ringsaand ball test, and-0101' to 0.5 part'of'sodium'hicarbonate, said comminutedyparticles beingin amountto give 1% to. 15 of said rsyntheticrubberdbased on theasphaltbinder.

19. The-method-ofbuilding;paving construction which comprises applyingator the aggregate for thepaving; constructionaa bituminousbinder selected from the group consistingaof asphalt and road" tar heated to-250 F; to

400 F. and blendedwith -free-fiowing comminutedparticles of a thermoplastic composition comprising 20' to 60 partsofar synthetic rubber copolyrner of: a major proportion of butadiene and a minor'proportion of' acrylonitrile, 30 to 60 parts of a bituminouspitch having a softeningrpoint-inthe range from1200 F. to 350 F. as

measuredby theringtand ball test; and'0.0'1to 0.5 part of a solid blowing agent which decomposes at temperatures between 250 F. and 400 F said comminuted particles beingtin amount to give 1% to-15% of rubber based on the roadftar binder.

20. Themethod of building paving constructionwhich comprises mixingrin a pug mill at temperature from 250 to 400 Fl aggregate for the paving construction, a bituminous binder'selected from the group consistingrot asphalt and"road tar,- and free-flowingcornminuted particles of a thermoplastic composition comprising 20 to 60-parts of a synthetic rubber copolymer 015 a major proportion joftbutadiene and a minor proportion of acrylonitrile, 30to 60 parts of a bituminous pitch havingia softeningpoint'in the range from 200 F. to 350 'F. as measured bythe ring and'ball test; and 0.01 to 0.5 part of sodium bicarbonate, said "comrninuted particles being in amount to give 1%to 15% 0t rubber based on the roadtar binder.

Bennettetal.: Mar. 8, 1921 Geyer'etal; r Oct. 20, 1931

Claims (1)

1. FREE-FLOWING COMMINUTED PARTICLES OF A THERMOPLASTIC COMPOSITION ADAPTED TO BE BLENDED WITH THE BITUMINOUS BINDER FOR THE AGGREGATE IN PAVING CONSTRUCTION COMPRISING 20 TO 60 PARTS OF A RUBBER, 30 TO 60 PARTS OF A BITUMINOUS MATERIAL HAVING A SOFTENING POINT IN THE RANGE FROM 200*F. TO 350*F. AS MEASURED BY THE RING AND BALL TEST, AND 0.01 TO 0.5 PART OF A SOLID BLOWING AGENT, WHICH DECOMPOSES AT TEMPERATURES BETWEEN 250*F. AND 400*F., THE INDIVIDUAL COMMINUTED PARTICLES HAVING A VOLUME EQUAL TO THE 

 

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